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EPA Tier 3 Compliant Analysis of Ultra-Low Sulfur Fuels

Abstract: Environmental regulations set the maximum permitted sulfur level in car fuels at 10 mg/kg. The X-ray fluorescence technology test methods analyze the sulfur concentration. The environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 3 regulation is XRF technology independent, with the condition that the performance of the instrument meets the Tier 3 accuracy and precision requirements.

Introduction

Environmental regulations set the maximum permitted sulfur level in car fuels at 10 mg/kg. Several different X-ray fluorescence technology test methods are available for analyzing the sulfur concentration, for example, ASTM D4294 (EDXRF) and ASTM D2622 (WDXRF). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 3 regulation introduced in 2017, is XRF technology independent, with the condition that the performance of the instrument meets the Tier 3 accuracy and precision requirements. This application note shows that Epsilon 4 complies with the Tier 3 requirements in only five minutes measuring time.

Instrumentation

Measurements were performed using a Malvern Panalytical Epsilon 4 EDXRF spectrometer, equipped with a 15 W silver anode X-ray tube, 6 beam filters, a helium purge facility, a high-resolution SDD30 silicon drift detector, a sample spinner and a 10-position removable sample changer.

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