Integrating the Analysis of Ultrashort-Chain PFAS
Method Development for Simultaneous Analysis of Ultrashort-Chain, Alternative, and Legacy PFAS
contributed by Restek |
By Shun-Hsin Liang and Mike Chang
A simple direct injection LC-MS/MS method was developed and evaluated for the simultaneous analysis of ultrashort-chain, alternative, and legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in various water samples. This method is recommended for labs wanting to use a single procedure to analyze compounds from all three PFAS categories in potable and non-potable waters.
LC-MS/MS methods for the analysis of legacy short-chain (C4, C5) and long-chain (>C5) per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) based on reversed-phase (RP) chromatography are well established. With proper modification, these methods often can also be used for LC-MS/MS analysis of alternative PFAS, such as HFPO-DA (GenX) and ADONA, which are perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids used as PFOA substitutes. Similarly, F-53B is a PFOS alternative produced in China that contains two polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate components, 9Cl-PF3ONS and 11Cl-PF3OUdS, which are included as analytes in the updated EPA 537.1 method. However, current LC methods may not be suitable for the analysis of newly trending ultrashort-chain (C2, C3) PFAS, mainly due to their insufficient retention on typical RP columns.
While the use of short-chain PFAS (PFBA and PFBS) is intentional, numerous studies have shown the ubiquitous occurrence of C2 and C3 PFAS in aqueous environmental samples [1,2]. These include trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPrA), perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS). It was shown that PFPrA is the predominant PFAS (up to 45% of total detectable PFAS) in rain and snow samples collected from the U.S., France, and Japan . To date, there is no definitive identification of contamination sources and levels for these ultrashort-chain PFAS, but a recent study detected PFEtS and PFPrS in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) and groundwaters from 11 military bases in the U.S. (often used for fire department training exercises) , indicating AFFF firefighting foam may be a source of ultrashort-chain PFAS.
Read the full article now
Log in or register to read this article in full and gain access to The Analytical Scientist’s entire content archive. It’s FREE and always will be!
Or register now - it’s free and always will be!
You will benefit from:
- Unlimited access to ALL articles
- News, interviews & opinions from leading industry experts
- Receive print (and PDF) copies of The Analytical Scientist magazine
Or Login via Social Media
By clicking on any of the above social media links, you are agreeing to our Privacy Notice.